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Weight Loss | Synerveda

Weight Loss

Synerveda Weight Loss Tea is a blend of naturally invigorating herbs and blended botanicals. It works synergistically to improve your body’ Fat burning capacity by enhancing metabolism, reducing appetite, and enhancing energy levels. It helps boost stamina and endurance aiding you to expend more energy and burn calories faster.

Uses and Indications:

  • Helps boost metabolism
  • Increases lipogenesis and enhances the bodys fat burning capacity
  • Improves Energy levels, hence making your workouts more intense
  • Curbs appetite and prevents uneccessary snacking on ’empty calories’
  • Thins your blood, thus improving circulation and reducing cholesterol.
  • Helps with Obesity, High Cholesterol and Diabetes

Garcinia Cambogia (Garcinia gummi-gutta)

Garcinia Cambogia is a sour fruit, native to India and South America (Malabar Tamarind)…used mainly for flavouring in food, due to its sour acrid taste. The sourness is attributed to high amounts of ‘Hydroxy Citrate’.

Hydroxy citrate also happens to be a potent inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which is essential for the synthesis of fatty acids. This enzyme converts sugars and starches into Fat. The enzyme binds to citrate, which has been exported from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and forms acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate from it. (Heymsfield SB, 1998). By inhibiting the cleavage enzyme, HCA prevents the conversion of ingested carbohydrates from being synthesised as Fat (Preuss, 2004). The blocked carbohydrates are instead deviated for energy production. Hence it is essential for the consumer to utilize this additional energy toward physical activity, which further causes more caloric utilization by the body.

Additionally, Garcinia Cambogia also causes appetite reduction, by releasing 5-hydroxytryptophan (precursor of serotonin), thus giving a feeling of satiety, and prevents overeating.

Although clinical trials with Garcinia Cambogia and HCA supplementation have been proven it to be pretty effective for weight loss and weight management, there have been studies where there was not as much significant difference in weight reduction between subjects on supplementation and on placebo. Partly, the reason for this is improper dosage levels and method of ingestion. Bioavailability is a major factor for HCA to work. The right amount of dosage for an extended period of time, is essential for sufficient amount of Hydroxy citrate to be present in the cellular matrix in order for it to be functional (Preuss HG,2004).

Another misnomer of researchers that were testing the efficacy of HCA, was that the protocol of their methodology involved supplementing the body with HCG and then checking for reduction of weight. This is a limitation of the clinical assessment, where the conceptualization of the hypothesis is (Substance ‘= ‘ OR ‘not =’ to results). When it comes to functionality within the Human body, there needs to be an understanding that there are various systems involved that work in tandem in order to create an end result.

As specified earlier by Preuss et al, the HCA deviates ingested carbohydrate from being synthesized into Fat to being utilized for energy. It is essential then, for the participant of the study, to utilize this energy via physical activity to burn more calories, and this cyclical balance enhances the body’s natural mechanisms of lipogenesis, thus making fat burn more effective.

*A comprehensive report published in Journal of obesity (NCBI) apparently collated a bunch of studies, reports and clinical trials to assess the efficacy of HCA/Garcinia in weight loss (Onakpoya, 2011). The results of this study seem to point at the ineffectiveness or summarizing that HCA does not show ‘significant’ weight loss. Since this study is supposed to be a comprehensive collation, it seems like it should be quite a finite conclusion to this deference.
Some studies have found HCA effective (check references) while some studies did not show sufficient difference in weight loss. The reasons for these have been stated above…Method of ingestion, absorption value, dosage levels, physical activity and diet control are also essential aspects, because weight loss is a comprehensive phenomenon.

In the discussions, there was an excerpt comparing the effects to another weight loss product called ‘Oristat’
“The result of our systematic review corroborates the findings from a previous systematic review of weight loss supplements, which reported that the weight reducing effects of most dietary supplements is not convincing. HCA is a commonly marketed as a complementary weight loss supplement. The meta-analysis from this systematic review suggests that HCA is not as effective as conventional weight loss pills, for example, orlistat. In a meta-analysis report of 16 studies including over 10 000 participants, overweight and obese patients taking orlistat had a clinically significant reduction in body weight compared to placebo (MD: 2.9 kg; 95% CI: 2.5, 3.2). Participants taking orlistat achieved a 5% and 10% weight loss compared to placebo in the results from pooled data. This contrasts quite sharply with the results from the meta-analysis of HCA clinical trials”. (Onakpoya, 2011).

** Orlistat .. sold mostly under the trade name Alli or Roche, is a saturated derivative of lipstatin, a potent natural inhibitor of pancreatic lipases isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces toxytricini. Orlistat works by binding to and lipases, and making it immune to be broken down by any lipase enzyme, and hence any Fats consumed, get binded to this product and gets passed out in stool.

Although, there is a similarity in mechanism of action, such as in HCA which binds to the lipase enzyme, Orlistat binds to the fat molecule itself, and any Fats consumed, by a person on Alli, is bound and passed out in stool. This results in extreme and rampant diarrhea. Which not only is a very unhealthy approach to dealing with Fat management, but can also lead to quite an inconvenient and an embarrassing lifestyle. Users of Alli would then just not eat as much or a well balance diet because of the severe inconvenience of constant diarrhea. This could lead to imbalanced nutrient intake and be a rather extreme way of managing fat ‘consumption’ , as opposed to redirecting fats to be burnt as carbohydrates, and energizing the body to do more physical activity.

Overall, Garcinia Cambogia by itself may not be a ‘miracle weight loss fruit’ as it probably was made to be in its marketing and hype initially, but a good weight management tool, and definitely a great adjunct for helping with weight loss, if used correctly.

Sida Cardifolia (Country Mallow)

Sida Cardifolia is a perennial shrub of the mallow family, native to India and used as a medicinal herb in Ayurveda. It is prescribed in conjunction with other herbs for respiratory disorders, blood pressure, as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory. It is also known to work on the central nervous system and provides relief from anxiety.

Sida Cardifolia is also known to assist weight loss, mainly due to its hypoglycemic activity. It has shown to reduce blood sugar levels by up to 30% (Kanth et al, 1999) thus reduces storage of glucose as fat cells.
The other reason Sida Cardifolia is used in a lot of Diet pills and weight loss supplements, is because of its constituents Ephidrine and Pseudoephidrine. Especially since Ephedra (A very potent weight loss stimulant) is banned in most countries, Sida Cardifolia is used as a more legally viable substitute. Although the Ephidrine content is a lot lesser in Sida Cardifolia, it has shown to be effective in reducing weight and appetite. However, the mechanism of working in Ephedra is by stimulation of the Central Nervous System, whereas the Ephidrine in Sida Cardifolia does not create a stimulatory response to the CNS. A study conducted on Rats, in fact showed a decrease in both heart rate as well as cystolic Blood pressure (Mediros et al, 2005). Not only does this prove that the fat burning effects of Sida Cardifolia is Not attributed to stimulation of the CNS as in Ephedra, it also points to the fact that it is not detrimental or harmful as Ephedra. As in, it does not cause risk to Heart health, or have other side effects such as hypertension, overstimulation, insomnia, etc. (Ankit Jain, 2011).

The hypotensive property of sida cardifolia in fact, has shown elevation of antioxidant enzyme Superoxide dismutase (SOD) , which is indicative of cardioprotection and reduced myocardial infraction (Yim MB, 1999). The study showed that extracts of S. Cardifolia leaves induced hypotension accompanied by significant bradycardia (lowered heart rate). This is an important function, because it points to the possibility, that the heart risk associated with Ephedrine (From S Cardifolia) as well as Ephedra (in the Weight Loss Tea formulation), (Galal, 2015) is minimised. This explains why there is no stimulation of the CNS with S Cardifolia ingestion, inspite of the ephedrine and pseudoephedrine content. Also, the possible risks associated with ephedra, for heart rate, blood pressure and liver toxicity is balanced or nullified with the inclusion of Sida Cardifolia. S Cardifolia extracts have also displayed hepatoprotective properties (Rejitha S, 2012).

S Cardifolia contains tannins and phenolics that display anti oxidant properties. The root extracts exhibits super oxidative scavenging, and can be significantly effective in reducing free radicals (Navneet, 2018).

Ephedra Sinica (MaHuang):

Ephedra Sinica is a plant species native to Mongolia, Russia and parts of Northern China. It is also found in Northern India and Japan, but mostly grows in areas of High Altitudes.
The active molecules (Ephedrine, norephedrine, pseudoephedrine) are all alkaloids that are similar to adaptogens and present in the berries. The berries are mostly red or reddish pink in colour. These alkaloids act on the Central Nervous System causing excitation (Increase in Heart Rate, a Boost in Metabolism and higher levels of Energy and Activity), which is exothermic (heat producing, in the body).The purpose of this plant, as with most fruiting plants that grow in higher altitudes is to provide animals (or humans) at that higher altitude, an instant burst of Energy to help navigate steep terrain, as well as to provide Heat to the body, as the temperatures at high altitudes are lower. This is the reason why Ephedra increases energy levels within the consumer as well as a boost in metabolism, due to increased heart rate.

Ephedrine acts as a stimulant in the central nervous system. It is a mixed sympathomimetic agent that enhances the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons and stimulates alpha and beta receptors thus stimulating heart rate and thereby increasing cardiac output (Hardman, 2001). It causes peripheral constriction resulting in an increase in peripheral resistance that can lead to a sustained rise in blood pressure (Astrup,1993). Ephedrine is also a decongestant and used in ayurveda for alleviating respiratory disorders such as asthma, bronchitis and shortness of breath.

The efficacy of Ephedra as a weight loss aide is quite well proven. It has been used ubiquitously in Diet pills, weight loss pills, etc. In fact the results are so good, that ephedra has gained a little bit of a controversial name for itself. In a report prepared by the California Evidence based Practice centre –RAND identified 44 controlled trials assessing ephedra and ephedrine alkaloids used in combination with other compounds for weight loss. Meta-regressions were used to assess the effect of ephedrine, ephedrine plus caffeine, and ephedra plus herbs containing caffeine. From all the clinical trials examined there is at least a 0.9 lbs /month (more than placebo) bodyweight decrease (NIH, 2004). The studies in which Ephedra was used in combination with other stimulatory herbs showed maximal efficacy (2.1 lbs/month over placebo bodyweight reduction). Most of these studies were conducted on average subjects (not athletic) and the amount and type of physical activity was not classified or considered. We believe that the effectiveness can be maximized by combining a proper exercise regime and a right (fat burn enhancing) diet. Also a combination of other herbs that complement the efficacy of each other could prove to provide a much greater loss of Fat and excess calories.

The correct directive with using Ephedra as a weight loss aide, is firstly to catapult metabolism ..with regular intake , and also to use this increased energy to train harder and burn calories (and fat) more effectively. If, post consumption, the consumer is subjected to activity, the energy is extended, and the heart rate is matched with the level of activity. The negative side effects such as palpitation, sweating, nausea, etc that have been associated in trials with ephedra (Shakelle PG, 2003) occur when the body is excited, but is not put to use in physical activity.

The safety concerns with Ephedra, due to which it was banned in some countries, is largely attributed to this. The improper use, dosage levels, and not utilizing the ‘Energy Boost’ in the right direction. RAND reviewed adverse events reported in 52 published randomized controlled clinical trials. No serious adverse events (death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular/stroke events, seizure, or serious psychiatric events) were reported in the clinical trials (NIH, 2004).
As long as the dosage levels are monitored and kept to moderate levels, there should not be any adverse effects with ephedra. Also, in this formulation (Synerveda Weight Loss Tea), there are adjunct herbs added that nullify the myocardial effects and calm the Nervous system, to ensure a balance in outcome.

Green Tea (Camellia sinensis):

Green Tea has been well known to be great for cardiovascular health as well as for weight loss. This can mostly be attributed to being replete with anti oxidants as well as Polyphenols. Polyphenols contained in teas are mainly classified as catechins. The primary polyphenols in Green are catechin, epicatechin, gallaogatechin, epicatechin gallate, apigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate (also known as EGCG). EGCG is the chief active component in green tea and also probably the most widely studied polyphenol. EGCG is a potent antioxidant, about 100 times more efficient in clearing free radicals as Vitamin C. Green Tea contains the highest amount of EGCG, and also several other Polyphenols that also have anti- Oxidant properties. A standard cup of green tea (250 mL) contains between 100 and 300 mg of total catechins and 50 and 90 mg of caffeine (Astille C, 2001).

Green tea and its catechin components are known to stimulate antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals, inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes, and stimulating antioxidant enzymes (N.Leelayuwat, 2017).

Catechins are suspected to improve lipid profile by interfering with micellar solubilization of cholesterol in the GI tract and reducing absorption. Additionally, EECG reduces FA gene expression, inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, increases mitochondrial energy expenditure, reduces oxLDL, increases PON-1, upregulates the LDL receptor, decreases APO-B lipoprotein secretion from cells, mimics the action of insulin, improves ED, activates nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), increases heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, decreases inflammation, displaces caveolin-1 from cell membranes, increases nitric oxide, reduces endothelial inflammation, and decreases body fat (Mark H, 2018).

A meta-analysis of 14 trials shows that EGCG at 224–674 mg/day or 60 oz of green tea a day reduced Total Cholesterol by 7.2 mg/dL and LDL by 2.19 mg/dL (p < 0.001),(Mark H, 2018).

A Meta analysis of 11 studies conducted by Dutch researchers in 2009, to evaluate the effects of catechins on weight loss and weight management, concluded that there was a significant reduction in weight as well as effective weight management. However, variabilities such as caffeine intake, and ethnicities showed varied results. Caucasians, for example showed more modest results as compared to the effectiveness of catechins on Asian populations (Hursel R, 2009).
A randomized double placebo study in China grouped 182 subjects that were moderately overweight (men and women) into four groups. One group received regular green tea, while others received a beverage increasingly fortified with high amounts of catechins. The group that received highest amounts of catechins (900mgs/day) scored the highest in reduction of body weight, waist circumference and intra-abdominal fat (Wang, 2010).

A study with a standardized concentrate of green tea extract was conducted to confirm that green tea, in vivo inhibits gastric and pancreatic lipases thus reducing break down and absorption of fats. A group of moderately obese patients were tested for 3 months. At the end of the study, the average body weight reduction was 4.6% and waist circumference was reduced by 4.48% (Chantre P, 2002).

Most studies simply rely on the difference in body weight or reduction in inches around the waist. It is imperative to understand the basal impact on the actual metabolic activity. In a randomized, double blind, cross over pilot study, six overweight men were tested for postprandial thermogenesis and fat oxidation with the consumption on 300 mgs of EECG for two days. It was found that EECG alone contributed to a change in metabolism and fat oxidation, although studies with a larger and more varied sample size is suggested (Boschmann, 2007).

It has been assessed through these literature reviews, that green tea does have thermogenic and fat burning effects, but the difference is not so significant from placebo. Trials with more concentrated extracts and in combination with higher amounts of caffeine had a significantly larger impact on the overall metabolism, fat oxidation as well as weight loss.

The extracts used in Synerveda Weight Loss Tea are higher in concentration of catechins and EECG (50% polyphenols) for maximal effectiveness, and also are combined with other concentrated herbal extracts that complement the effects and actions.

White Willow Bark (Salix Alba)

White willow, a species of willow that is native mainly to the European Subcontinent. It is also found in parts of Central and Western Asia. The name derives from the white tone on the undersides of the leaves. The use of White Willow bark as a medicinal aide dates back to 400 BC during the time of Hippocrates. It was chewed to help reduce fevers and inflammation. The active ingredient (Salicin) is similar to asprin. In fact, asprin is a derivative of salicylic acid. Since it is a blood thinner, it acts as an analgesic reducing pain and inflammation, but also works as a ‘Thermogenic’, that is, enhances the effects of other supplements/compounds. White willow bark specifically enhances the effects of Ephedra, by increasing vasodilation and helps carry the other ingredients more smoothly through the blood. White willow bark extracts are generally standardized to salicin, other ingredients in the extracts such as flavonoids, polyphenols and other salicylates may also play prominent roles in the therapeutic effects of the bark. Adverse effects appear to be minimal as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin (Shara M, 2015).

Preliminary clinical research suggests that willow bark in combination with ephedra and cola nut might cause modest weight loss in overweight and obese people. Willow bark 600 mg daily (containing 90 mg salicin) in divided doses given for 3 months in combination with central nervous system (CNS) stimulants might cause a 2 kg reduction in weight. Some evidence suggests that willow bark or aspirin and caffeine might act synergistically with ephedrine for weight loss by inhibiting prostaglandin, which increases norepinephrine release. However aspirin, and theoretically willow bark, have no thermogenic effect when taken by itself (Natural Database, Web reference).

Vasaka / Malabar Nut : (Justicia adhatoda):

Justica adhatoda is a perennial shrub, prevalently native to South Asia (India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, China and Malaysia). The leaves are lance shaped and extremely bitter. Vasaka is used extensively in Ayurveda and Unnani medicine as an expectorant mostly in the treatment for respiratory disorders. The leaves of Adhatoda vasica contain phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phenolics and flavonoids. The most important is vasicine, a quinazoline alkaloid.
Both vasicine and vasicinone, the primary alkaloid constituents of Adhatoda are extremely potent bronchodilators and are helpful in treating respiratory issues such as asthma and bronchitis (Nyeem, 2017). The bronchodilating effects of Vasaka are quite pronounced, and although used mainly medicinally, it can be quite effective in opening up breathing and respiratory airways.

In a study conducted in China, the antitussive, expectorant, and bronchodilating effects of the quinazoline alkaloids Vasicin, Deoxyvasicine and vasicinone were evaluated in mice and guinea pigs. Isolated Vasicine, Deoxyvasicine and vasicinone were administered orally. Bronchodilation tests showed that Vasicine, , Deoxyvasicine and vasicinone prolonged the pre-convulsive time for 28.59%, 57.21%, and 29.66%, respectively, at a dose of 45 mg/kg in guinea pigs, whereas aminophylline prolonged the pre-convulsive time by 46.98% compared with pre-treatment (Liu W, 2015).

Vasaka has been added to the Weight Loss complex, essentially to enhance breathing. This could help improve athletic performance and increase energy and endurance, thus helping the consumer burn fat and utilize calories more effectively during physical activity. Also opening up the lungs and improving breathing, it induces inhaling more oxygen into the blood stream.

References:


Garcina Cambogia

Heymsfield SB, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998 Nov 11;280(18):1596-600.

Preuss HG, et al. Efficacy of a novel, natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX, niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract in weight management in human volunteers: a pilot study. Nutrition Research. 2004 Jan; 24(1); 45-58.

Preuss, HG, et al., Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (CHA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004 May; 6(3): 171-80.
Preuss, HG and Dallas Clouatre. Garcinia cambogia: How to optimize its effects. Available from: http://www.anh-usa.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/garcinia-cambogia2.pdf

KohsukeHayamizu et al, Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Current Therapeutic Research. Volume 64, Issue 8, September–October 2003, Pages 551-567

Onakpoya, Igho et al. “The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight Loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials.” Journal of Obesity 2011 (2011): 509038. PMC. Web. 12 Sept. 2018.

Sida Cardifolia

Ankit Jain, Shreya Choubey, P.K.Singour, H. Rajak and R.S. Pawar, Journal of Applied Pharmaceuticals Science, 01 (02); 2011: 23-31.
Yim MB, Chock PB, Stadman ER, editors. Copper zinc superoxide d ismutase, catalyzes hydroxyl radical production from hydrogen peroxide. USA: Proceeding of the Academy of National Science 1999.

Kubavat JB, Asdaq SMB. Role of Sida cordifolia L. leaves on biochemical and antioxidant profile during myocardial injury. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 124: 162-5.

Rejitha S, Prathibha P, Indira M. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. Br J Nutr 2012; 108: 1256-63
Ahmed Galal, Vijayasankar Raman and Ikhlas A. Khan. Sida cordifolia, a Traditional Herb in Modern Perspective – A Review. Current Traditional Medicine, 2015, 1, 5-17
Navneet, Ajeet Singh, Ethnobotanical, Pharmacological Benefits and Phytochemistry of Sida cordifolia (Linn.): A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2018; 10(1): 16-21

Ephedra

Shekelle PG, Hardy ML, Morton SC, et al.: Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance. A meta-analysis. JAMA 289:1537-1545, 2003.
Ephedra and Ephedrine Alkaloids for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance. National Institute of Health: A Fact sheet for Health Professionals. July, 2004.
Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Gilman A, eds.: Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Astrup A, Toubro S: Thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and caffeine in man. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 17:S41-S43, 1993.
Kondo N, Mikage M, Idaka K: Medico-botanical studies of ephedra plants from the Himalayan region, part III: causative factors of variations of alkaloid content in herbal stems. Natural Medicines 53:194-200, 1999.

Green Tea

Mark Houston MD, MS, MSc, in Integrative Medicine (Fourth Edition), 2018. Pages 264-275.e5.
N.Leelayuwat, Physical Activity and the Aging Brain. Effects of Exercise on Neurological Function, 2017. Pages 199-208
Astill C, Birch MR, Dacombe C,Humphrey PG,Martin PT. Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions.J Agric Food Chem.2001;49:5340–7
Hursel R, et al.“The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis” Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Sep;33(9):956-61.
Wang H, et al. (Full Text) “Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition” Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Apr;18(4):773-9.
Chantre P, Lairon D. “Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity” Phytomedicine. 2002 Jan;9(1):3-8.
Boschmann M, Thielecke F. (Full Text) “The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study” J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Aug;26(4):389S-395S.

Cláudio A. Cunha, Fábio S. Lira, José C. Rosa Neto, Gustavo D. Pimentel, Gabriel I. H. Souza,1Camila Morais Gonçalves da Silva, Cláudio T. de Souza, Eliane B. Ribeiro, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Cláudia M. Oller do Nascimento, Bruno Rodrigues, Patrícia de Oliveira Carvalho and Lila M. Oyama. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. Mediators of Inflammation Volume 2013, Article ID 635470,
Adrian B. Hodgson Rebecca K. Randell Asker E. Jeukendrup, The Effect of Green Tea Extract on Fat Oxidation at Rest and during Exercise: Evidence of Efficacy and Proposed Mechanisms. Advances in Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 2, 1 March 2013, Pages 129–140.

Tannis Jurgens, Anne Marie Whelan, Lara Killian, Steve Doucette, Sara F L Kirk, Elizabeth Foy, Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. 12(12):CD008650 · December 2012.

White Willow Bark

Shara M, Stohs SJ, Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts. Phytother Res. 2015 Aug;29(8):1112-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5377.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/salicin
http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/nd/PrintVersion.aspx?id=955&AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1
GaryGaffney, Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance Muscle Building, Endurance, and Strength (Chapter 15), Pages 151-159, 2013.

Vasaka

Mohammad Abu Bin Nyeem, Mustofa Nabi, BM Rabiul Islam, Md. Moksed Ali, Sanjeeda Sultana, Rabeya Siddika, Wonderful bronchodilatory indigenous plant (adhatoda vasica): A phyto-pharmacological profile. International Journal of Advanced Research and Development. Volume 2; Issue 1; January 2017; Page No. 86-90.

Liu W, Wang Y, He DD, Li SP, Zhu YD, Jiang B, Cheng XM, Wang Z, Wang CH., Antitussive, expectorant, and bronchodilating effects of quinazoline alkaloids (±)-vasicine, deoxyvasicine, and (±)-vasicinone from aerial parts of Peganum harmala L. Phytomedicine. 2015 Nov 15;22(12):1088-95. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.08.005.

Kalpesh Panara*, Suman Singh, Krutika Joshi, Praveen Kumar A. and Nishteswar Karra, REVIEW ON RESEARCH STUDIES OF VASAPATRA (LEAF OF ADHATODA VASICA NEES.) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACOGNOSY. ICV (2015): 69.75, Projected Impact Factor (2017): 0.59

Santosh Kumar Singh, Dr. Jay Ram Patel, Arvind Dangi, Deepak Bachle and Rahul Kumar Kataria. A complete over review on Adhatoda vasica a traditional medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2017; 5(1): 175-180